NCLEX RN Practice Question # 405

pulmonary sarcoidosis

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pulmonary disease

A disease state characterized by pulmonary airflow obstruction that is usually progressive, not fully reversible, and sometimes accompanied by airway hyperreactivity. Airflow obstruction may be caused by chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema. In chronic hypercapnia, the stimulus to breathe is a low PO2 instead of an increased PCO2.




  • Also known as chronic obstructive lung disease and chronic airflow limitation
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a disease state characterized by airflow obstruction caused by emphysema or chronic bronchitis.
  • Progressive airflow limitation occurs, associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs that is not completely reversible.
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease leads to pulmonary insufficiency, pulmonary hypertension, and cor pulmonale.


  • Cough
  • Exertional dyspnea
  • Wheezing and crackles
  • Sputum production
  • Weight loss
  • Barrel chest (emphysema) (Fig. 58-11)
  • Use of accessory muscles for breathing
  • Prolonged expiration
  • Orthopnea
  • Cardiac dysrhythmias
  • Congestion and hyperinflation seen on chest xray
  • ABG levels that indicate respiratory acidosis and hypoxemia

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