NCLEX RN Practice Question # 472

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What you Know about Parkinson`S Disease?  (Nclex Review)


  • Parkinson’s disease is a degenerative disease caused by the depletion of dopamine, which interferes with the inhibition of excitatory impulses, resulting in a dysfunction of the extrapyramidal system.
  • It is a slow, progressive disease that results in a crippling disability.
  • The debilitation can result in falls, self-care deficits, failure of body systems, and depression.
  • Mental deterioration occurs late in the disease.


  • Bradykinesia, abnormal slowness of movement, and sluggishness of physical and mental responses
  • Akinesia
  • Monotonous speech
  • Handwriting that becomes progressively smaller
  • Tremors in hands and fingers at rest (pill rolling)
  • Tremors increasing when fatigued and decreasing with purposeful activity or sleep
  • Rigidity with jerky movements
  • Restlessness and pacing
  • Blank facial expression; mask-like facies
  • Drooling
  • Difficulty swallowing and speaking
  • Loss of coordination and balance
  • Shuffling steps, stooped position, and propulsive gait


  • Assess neurological status.
  • Assess ability to swallow and chew.
  • Provide high-calorie, high-protein, high-fiber soft diet with small, frequent feedings.
  • Increase fluid intake to 2000 mL/day.
  • Monitor for constipation.
  • Promote independence along with safety measures.
  • Avoid rushing the client with activities.
  • Assist with ambulation and provide assistive devices.
  • Instruct the client to rock back and forth to initiate movement.
  • Instruct the client to wear low-heeled shoes.
  • Encourage the client to lift feet when walking and to avoid prolonged sitting.
  • Provide a firm mattress and position the client prone, without a pillow, to facilitate proper posture.
  • Instruct in proper posture by teaching the client to hold the hands behind the back to keep the spine and neck erect.
  • Promote physical therapy and rehabilitation.
  • Administer antiparkinsonian medications to increase the level of dopamine in the CNS.
  • Instruct the client to avoid foods high in vitamin B6 because they block the effects of antiparkinsonian medications.
  • Instruct the client to avoid monoamine oxidase inhibitors because they will precipitate hypertensive crisis.

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