NCLEX RN Practice Question # 626

NCLEX Examination.

Practice Question # .




Cirrhosis NCLEX Review


  • A chronic, progressive disease of the liver characterized by diffuse degeneration and destruction of hepatocytes
  • Repeated destruction of hepatic cells causes the formation of scar tissue.


  • Portal hypertension: A persistent increase in pressure in the portal vein that develops as a result of obstruction to flow
  • Ascites
    • Accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity that results from venous congestion of the hepatic capillaries b. Capillary congestion leads to plasma leaking directly from the liver surface and portal vein.
  • Bleeding esophageal varices: Fragile, thinwalled, distended esophageal veins that become irritated and rupture
  • Coagulation defects
    • Decreased synthesis of bile fats in the liver prevents the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.
    • Without vitamin K and clotting factors II, VII, IX, and X, the client is prone to bleeding.
  • Jaundice: Occurs because the liver is unable to metabolize bilirubin and because the edema, fibrosis, and scarring of the hepatic bile ducts interfere with normal bile and bilirubin secretion
  • Portal systemic encephalopathy: End-stage hepatic failure characterized by altered level of consciousness, neurological symptoms, impaired thinking, and neuromuscular disturbances; caused by failure of the diseased liver to detoxify neurotoxic agents such as ammonia.
  • Hepatorenal syndrome
    • Progressive renal failure associated with hepatic failure
    • Characterized by a sudden decrease in urinary output, elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, decreased urine sodium excretion, and increased urine osmolarity

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