What is ANEMIA?
- Iron deficiency anemia is a condition that develops as a result of an inadequate amount of serum iron.
- Anemia predisposes the client to postpartum infection.
Types and Causes of Anemia
Type of Anemia
|Normocytic/normochromic (normal cell size; normal amount of Hgb)||Acute blood loss, aplastic anemia, prosthetic heart valves, sepsis, tumor|
|Microcytic/hypochromic (small cell size; low amount of Hgb)||Iron deficiency, lead poisoning, thalassemia|
|Microcytic/normochromic (small cell size; normal amount of Hgb)||Erythropoietin deficiency secondary to renal failure|
|Macrocytic/normochromic (large cell size; normal amount of Hgb)||Chemotherapy, folate deficiency, vitamin B12 deficiency|
◆ Microcytic— MCV less than normal (<80 fL)
◆ Normocytic— MCV within normal range (80–100 fL)
◆ Macrocytic— MCV greater than normal (>100 fL)
◆ Hypochromic—MCH less than normal (<27 pg)
◆ Normochromic—MCH within normal range (27–31 pg)
◆ Hyperchromic—MCH greater than normal (>31 pg)
Assessment of Anemia
- Hemoglobin value is usually less than 10 g/dL; hematocrit value is usually less than 30%.
- Monitor hemoglobin and hematocrit levels every 2 weeks.
- Administer and instruct the client about iron and folic acid supplements.
- Instruct the client to take iron with a source of vitamin C to increase its absorption and to avoid taking iron with tea.
- Instruct the client to eat foods high in iron, folic acid, and protein.
- Teach the client to monitor for signs and symptoms of infection.
- Prepare to administer parenteral iron; this may be prescribed for severe anemia.
- Prepare to administer blood transfusions for severe anemia, if prescribed.
- Prepare for the administration of oxytocic medications in the postpartum period if excessive bleeding is a concern.